loyola university chicago
zouhair ghazzal

rome center
department of history





All courses are based on extensive reading and interpretation of texts. Students are therefore expected to come prepared beforehand since there will be no formal lectures, but only a thorough discussion of the texts.

The focus of all six courses is mostly modern Europe.

Three papers are required, mostly based on the class readings, but also with questions that might require additional library work.

Students might be requested to prepare for oral presentations on a regular basis, depending on the needs of the course: e.g. extra-material from the library.

There are no exams, only papers.

Students will be asked to join an electronic mail-list to post messages on the class readings, papers, or any other item they wish to discuss.


1. Machiavelli and his interpreters
2. The Mediterranean
3. The Making of Europe

4. European capitalism, 15th-18th centuries
5. History of economic analysis
6. Italian cinema and the modern city

FALL 2001

1. Machiavelli and his interpreters

Through an examination of The Prince and Discourses, this course would like to present the work of Machiavelli as an attempt to create an urban political culture based on civil virtues. Thus, instead of the traditional reading of Machiavelli as one who pushed the notion of cynicism in politics to the point of conceiving a powerful and indifferent ruler who maintains his rule at any cost irrespective of moral considerations, another interpretation would focus on the emergence of an urban culture from feudalism, which begins to see the virtues of commercialism and a more open public bourgeois sphere. Machiavelli thus represents the beginnings of a new sixteenth-century political discourse, one that will also be adopted by the Founding Fathers of the American Republic.

· Machiavelli's Prince (Cambridge, 1988), ISBN 0521349931.
· Machiavelli's Discourses (Chicago), ISBN 0-226-50036-5.
· J.G.A. Pocock's Machiavellian Moment (Princeton, 1975), ISBN 0-691-10029-2.

2. The Mediterranean

The publication of Fernand Braudel's The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the mid-1940s marked a new era in modern historiography. First, instead of focusing on the traditional national (and nationalistic) territories of western Europe, Braudel creates a new entity, the Mediterranean, as the topos of his historical inquiry. Second, Braudel's Mediterranean is not covered in terms of its political and diplomatic history, but from the grounds of its "material civilization" (civilisation matérielle). Finally, third, this social and economic history of the Mediterranean is analyzed on a longue durée basis so that this part of Europe under the Hapsburg and the Italian city-states, not to mention the threat posed by the Ottomans after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, are perceived in terms of their interactions over more than three centuries.

· Fernand Braudel's On History (Chicago, 1982), ISBN 0226071510.
· Braudel's The Mediterranean, 2 vol., University of California Press, ISBN 0520203089 & 0520203305.
· Harry Hearder, Italy: A Short History (Cambridge, 1990), ISBN 0-521-33719-4.

3. The Making of Europe

It is generally assumed that the dominance and hegemony of western civilization in the modern world was an outcome of mutations that occurred in Europe throughout the Middle Ages. However, European hegemony is typically perceived nowadays as an outcome of the sciences and technologies that were produced since the seventeenth century, thus considerably minimizing what feudal Europe went through. This course would like to analyze the social, economic, political and legal transformations that Europe had to assume since the tenth century in order to create the modern culture we are now all familiar with, and to which it brought a world domination that set it apart from other civilization patterns in Islamdom, Asia, and Africa. The course will begin with a survey of the Middle Ages in their period of maturity, then move to modern Italy, and with a final analysis of twentieth century Europe.

· Robert Bartlett, The Making of Europe (Princeton, 1993), ISBN 0-691-03780-9.
· Carl E. Schorske, Thinking with History (Princeton, 1999), ISBN 0691029466.
· Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Extremes (Vintage, 1994), ISBN 0-679-73005-2.



4. European capitalism, 15th-18th centuries

This course is a continuation of "The Mediterranean" as it looks at Braudel's second major historical work on the evolution of European capitalism between the 15th and 18th centuries. As in the previous course, the aim is to discuss the importance of constructing historical entities which are not necessarily construed on a national basis, and follow their evolution on a longue durée basis.

Fernand Braudel, Civilization and Capitalism: 15th-18th Century, 3 vol., University of California Press, ISBN 0520081145, 0520081153 & 0520081161.

5. History of economic analysis

As most economic history is nowadays assumed to be the work of historians who would like to underscore the importance of the social and economic in the evolution of societies (e.g. Fernand Braudel and the Annales), major economists typically shun away from such a task by limiting themselves to modern economic concerns, usually not venturing to the periods before the New Deal. The Austrian economist, Joseph Schumpeter, was a notable exception in that he was very much concerned with the evolution of economic theories from the Greeks to the modern times. This course follows Schumpeter's thought, based on his famous Harvard lectures, from the Aristotelian notions on the economy, to the Physiocrats of early modern Europe, up to Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Karl Marx, and John Maynard Keynes.

· Joseph A. Schumpeter, The Theory of Economic Development (Transaction Publishers, 1997), ISBN 0-87855-698-2.
· Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (Harper Torchbooks, 1975), ISBN 0-06-133008-6.
· Schumpeter, History of Economic Analysis (Oxford), ISBN 0195105591.

6. Italian cinema and the modern city

In parallel to the French Nouvelle Vague, the Italian cinema is perceived as one of the most precociously inventive, with an array of well known filmmakers since the Second World War. Pending on what will be available at the Rome Center's Library, this course will focus on one film per week, in addition to readings on individual films and filmmakers.

· Antonioni's L'Avventura
· Antonioni's La notte
· Visconti's Rocco and His Brothers, Rocco e i suoi fratelli
· Fellini's Dolce vita
· Rossellini's Rome Open City
· Rossellini's Viaggio in Italia
· Rossellini's Paisà
· Vittorio De Sica's Ladri di biciclette [1948], Bicycle Thief
· Vittorio De Sica, Il Giardino dei Finzi-Contini [1970]
· Nanni Moretti's Caro diario [1994]
· Pasolini's Teorema
· Paolo & Vittorio Taviani, Padre padrone [1977].

· The Films of Roberto Rossellini, by Peter Bondanella, Cambridge, 1993 (ISBN 0521398665).
· Seymour Benjamin Chatman, Antonioni, Or, the Surface of the World, University of California Press, 1985, ISBN 0520053419.
· Geoffrey Nowell-Smith, L'Avventura, BFI Film Classic, 1998, ISBN 0851705340.
· David Forgacs, Rome Open City, BFI Film Classic, 2001, ISBN 0851708048.
· Sam Rohdie, Rocco and His Brothers, BFI Film Classic, 1993, ISBN 0851703402.
· Marcia Landy, Italian Film (Cambridge), ISBN 0-521-64977-3.